Literature Review

Summarizing Literature

Arkansas Tech University Arkansas Tech University
Summary--one paragraph to summarize the literature review V. Chapter III Methodology A. ... findings in the literature C. Conclusions D. Implications --what do these finding mean? E ... Review of the Literature A. Conceptual Framework -- use as many pages as you deem ... Summary--1 paragraph to summarize ... ·

Summarizing Literature

Public economics has been quick to draw upon the insights of other fields and to understand their implications for policy analysis. Two topics in particular have generated such a concentrated burst of related research that we organized mini-symposia around the topics. One paper presented at the spring 2011 nber public economics program meeting uses the quasi-random assignment of disability applicants to examiners with different degrees of leniency in judging disability to examine the impact of disability insurance receipt on labor supply.

This style of work now has informed research on public finance, with a large and robust literature dealing with policy problems such as capital income taxation and social insurance in dynamic models. By recovering individual preferences from choices, one can proceed to identify policies that maximize the individuals welfare. However, the implications of the empirical findings for the parameters that entered these theoretical models were often unclear.

In addition to examining the impacts of social insurance, a growing body of empirical research has investigated some of the underlying economic rationales for these social insurance programs, focusing particularly on the existence and nature of selection in private insurance markets for annuities and health insurance ( ). Ma 02138 james poterba is president of the national bureau of economic research. These studies generally have found significant impacts of taxes on reported taxable income, particularly for high income individuals and over longer horizons when individuals have had sufficient time to adjust labor supply.

The nbers pe program has made significant contributions toward achieving this goal over the past decades and is well poised to continue to do so in the years to come. These problems are technically very challenging, because dynamic models are generally much less tractable than static models. These studies have analyzed, among other things, the extent to which unemployment benefit extensions have increased unemployment rates, and whether this effect is smaller or larger in recessions.

But when individuals do not optimize, their choices no longer reveal their true preferences, and it becomes much less clear what the governments objective should be. One early example along these lines is work showing that constraining agents savings decisions when individuals have self-control problems can increase utility ( ). They are grateful to annetta zhou for excellent research assistance.

The papers in these programs collectively account for over 40 percent of nber working papers in 2010. Yet in many cases, it has been difficult to translate these findings into assessments of the efficiency or other economic effects associated with social security programs. An equally large number of studies have measured the impacts of social insurance and welfare programs on many behaviors ( ). Make sure that the web site address displayed in the address bar of your browser is spelled and formatted correctly. The emphasis on developing techniques for detecting selection and then applying them has generated interesting and at times surprising insights about the nature of selection and the implications for public policy in annuity and health insurance markets.


The NBER Public Economics Program


... contrary to the lessons from the behavioral literature summarized above. One early ... Second, we qualitatively summarize some of the emerging themes of recent research, both ... An active literature uses lab experiments to investigate economic decision making in a ... Rather than attempting ... ·

Summarizing Literature

Medicine
... summarize the literature, and give you "actionable options." Presumably they somehow try ... There is a literature which frames this as a "grand bargain". The philosopher Donald ... However, another consistent result in the literature (e.g., here, here) is that when we ... Yes, it is true that ... ·
Summarizing Literature The public economics program began as the business taxation and finance program, which held its first meeting under the direction of david bradford in december 1977. We expect to see much more research in this area in the coming years. ). Both of these methodological approaches have allowed pe researchers to start to assess how various policies affect a number of criteria that might be used for policy analysis. Researchers have made considerable progress in facing these technical challenges and have begun to obtain some interesting findings. Naturally, the summaries below neglect a far larger fraction of research than they cover no brief review could do justice to the breadth and depth of work done by the pe group over the past five years. By recovering individual preferences from choices, one can proceed to identify policies that maximize the individuals welfare, We expect this growth to be even more rapid in the coming years. Public economists have leaned very heavily upon the tools of revealed preference in order to analyze policy. Rather than attempting to summarize the entire corpus of work that has been done by this program in the past few years, this report provides a birds eye view of some of the major changes in the field from two perspectives.

  • A key challenge in this nascent literature has been to understand how to do welfare analysis when agents do not optimize. Much of this growth is likely due to the greater availability of micro data that permit rigorous empirical analyses of questions that cannot be answered purely based on theory. Much of the empirical work on important national social insurance programs -- such as social security, medicare, and disability insurance -- was limited to time-series comparisons as the programs expanded or to cross-sectional comparisons about individuals whose incomes gave them access to different benefit levels. It was renamed the taxation program in 1980, to reflect the broader research interests of its affiliated researchers. Part of this increase is related to the fact that the nature of government expenditure today is more amenable to economic analysis economists have less to say about the best way to build bridges than about how to design of social insurance programs.

    The share of tax-related papers that deal exclusively with individual taxation has risen from almost 50 percent in 1990 to about 90 percent in 2010. This structural approach offers a versatile tool for making quantitative predictions about how particular measures of household welfare could be affected by policy changes in a variety of settings. We expect much more research in these areas using the tools that have been developed in recent research. For instance, recent work has tested theoretical predictions about observational learning ( ), analyzed whether neoclassical models of tax evasion are good descriptions of taxpayer behavior ( ), and investigated whether individuals utility depends upon absolute or relative income ( ). ).

    Mitsui professor of economics at m. An equally large number of studies have measured the impacts of social insurance and welfare programs on many behaviors ( ). Raj chetty is a professor of economics at harvard university, and amy finkelstein is a professor of economics at mit. Rather than attempting to summarize the entire corpus of work that has been done by this program in the past few years, this report provides a birds eye view of some of the major changes in the field from two perspectives. In the 1980s and early 1990s, empirical work tended to focus on the distortionary consequences of social insurance programs, particularly for labor supply, but also for other behaviors such as savings and health expenditures. Theoretical studies on social security ( ) have characterized the efficiency consequences of program design under specific assumptions about various parameters. These programs make up over half of federal expenditures and are expected to grow rapidly over the coming decades as the baby boomers age and medical costs continue to grow. The authors find that the receipt of disability insurance reduces labor force participation more for those who are estimated to have less severe disabilities. But another likely reason for the shift is that the varied nature of expenditure programs at the state and local level creates many important and interesting questions that researchers can investigate using modern quasi-experimental techniques. Make sure that the web site address displayed in the address bar of your browser is spelled and formatted correctly.

    Table 4.5 and Fig 4.1 summarize the literature available to me on self-correction. With ... Table 4.4 summarizes the five conditions.. 106. Table 4.4 Self-correction conditions in ... To summarize thus far, Monitor use results in the rise in rank of items that are 'late-. ... To summarize, use of ... ·

    Environment

    Winston summarizes a large literature on antitrust, safety regulation and environmental ... ·
  • Essays
  • Transitional Words For Essays
  • Expository Essays
  • Transitional Words For Essay
  • Analytical Essay
  • Literature Review In Project Writing
  • Review Of Related Literature For Thesis
  • Movie Reviews
  • Movie Posters
  • Movie Listings
  • I Love Writing Essays

    These include classic topics such as public goods ( ), as well as newer areas of inquiry such as the impact of matching grants on charitable giving ( ). An active literature uses lab experiments to investigate economic decision making in a variety of domains. To broadly characterize some of the main trends, we downloaded all of the working papers in the taxation program in 1990 and in the public economics program in 20, and classified them in various ways, which we summarize in table 1. The interest in analyzing fiscal stimulus is oen example of a broader trend toward analyzing issues that have been tackled historically using macroeconomic approaches rather than microeconometric methods. For example, recent work has examined the potential benefits that unemployment insurance may provide by giving unemployed workers access to liquidity ( ) one of the central findings of this new vein of research is that access to liquidity during unemployment may be one of the most important functions of unemployment insurance Buy now Summarizing Literature

    What To Write In A Essay

    While traditional public economics often starts from potential market failures that might motivate government intervention - such as asymmetric information or externalities due to incomplete markets - behavioral models open up a new class of potential motives and considerations for government policy. In addition to examining the impacts of social insurance, a growing body of empirical research has investigated some of the underlying economic rationales for these social insurance programs, focusing particularly on the existence and nature of selection in private insurance markets for annuities and health insurance ( ). While many of the theoretical models studied by public economists in the 1980s and 1990s were static, macroeconomists were developing dynamic models with forward-looking agents who anticipated changes in future government policies Summarizing Literature Buy now

    How To Write An Essay Plan

    For example, recent work has examined the potential benefits that unemployment insurance may provide by giving unemployed workers access to liquidity ( ) one of the central findings of this new vein of research is that access to liquidity during unemployment may be one of the most important functions of unemployment insurance. These include classic topics such as public goods ( ), as well as newer areas of inquiry such as the impact of matching grants on charitable giving ( ). An equally large number of studies have measured the impacts of social insurance and welfare programs on many behaviors ( ). In the last two decades, the research conducted by the public economics program has changed dramatically in volume, methodology, and topics Buy Summarizing Literature at a discount

    Sports Essay Writing

    Theoretical studies on social security ( ) have characterized the efficiency consequences of program design under specific assumptions about various parameters. There also has been a marked shift in research from the analysis of taxation to the analysis of government expenditures. Part of this increase is related to the fact that the nature of government expenditure today is more amenable to economic analysis economists have less to say about the best way to build bridges than about how to design of social insurance programs. Several studies involve the design of experiments that directly test the predictions of standard models. This structural approach offers a versatile tool for making quantitative predictions about how particular measures of household welfare could be affected by policy changes in a variety of settings Buy Online Summarizing Literature

    Writing A Introduction For A Essay

    While many of the theoretical models studied by public economists in the 1980s and 1990s were static, macroeconomists were developing dynamic models with forward-looking agents who anticipated changes in future government policies. We believe that part of this trend is related to the availability of excellent microdata and identification strategies that are useful in analyzing individual tax and spending programs. This has raised the possibility that there may be insurance markets in which private information results in too much rather than too little insurance coverage. There also have been important changes within the sub-field of taxation. These studies have analyzed, among other things, the extent to which unemployment benefit extensions have increased unemployment rates, and whether this effect is smaller or larger in recessions Buy Summarizing Literature Online at a discount

    Essay Writing For Beginners

    One of the most important transformations in public economics over the past decade has been the incorporation of lessons from behavioral economics. For instance, researchers have provided numerical characterizations of how a utilitarian social welfare criterion would be affected by various degrees of progressivity of the income tax schedule ( ), of the level of unemployment benefits that maximizes individuals expected utility ( ), and of the welfare costs of adverse selection in health insurance and annuity markets ( ). This latter technique, which has come to be known as the sufficient statistic approach, is less dependent on the specification of a particular model of underlying behavior, but is more limited in the set of questions it can answer Summarizing Literature For Sale

    Nature Writing Essays

    Rather than attempting to summarize the entire corpus of work that has been done by this program in the past few years, this report provides a birds eye view of some of the major changes in the field from two perspectives. This style of work now has informed research on public finance, with a large and robust literature dealing with policy problems such as capital income taxation and social insurance in dynamic models. Naturally, the summaries below neglect a far larger fraction of research than they cover no brief review could do justice to the breadth and depth of work done by the pe group over the past five years. Other program meetings have featured nber working papers related to the impact of fiscal stimulus as well, including an analysis of the impact of the cash for clunkers program on the economy ( ) which concluded that almost all of the additional car sales induced by this program represented moving forward sales that otherwise would have occurred within the year anyway For Sale Summarizing Literature

    Writing A Scientific Essay

    Prompted by the growth in empirical work documented above, researchers more recently have begun to seek methods of connecting empirical findings back to the theoretical models that formed the core of public finance research in the 1970s and 1980s. Another interesting direction for further work will be to tie the new dynamic models more closely to empirical evidence, as is now common in the analysis of static problems. Two topics in particular have generated such a concentrated burst of related research that we organized mini-symposia around the topics. We believe that part of this trend is related to the availability of excellent microdata and identification strategies that are useful in analyzing individual tax and spending programs Sale Summarizing Literature

    MENU

    Home

    Paper

    Coursework

    Biographies

    Writing

    Capstone

    Bibliography

    Letter

    Dissertation

    Term paper

    Literature

    Dos And Don Ts Of Essay Writing

    Write Essay Topic

    My Friend Essay Writing

    Transitions In Essay Writing

    Politics Essay Writing

    Essay Writing For Beginners

    High School Vs College Essay

    How To Write A Good Opening Paragraph For An Essay

    How To Write Essay With Example

    Best Topic For Essay Writing

    Hamburger Essay Writing

    Exam Essay Writing Tips

    How To Write About Myself Essay

    How To Write As Essay

    Tips Essay Writing

    Literature Review
    sitemap

    SPONSOR